Eburu and Anya published an article in the Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary sciences that highlighted the dose-response effects of Anise Essential Oil on the fermentation and bio-hydrogenation of n-3 Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid using batch culture system.
Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (Lc-n-3-PUFA) are mainly found in the cell membrane. The team revealed that alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3) are widely known members of PUFA. Recent evidence showed Lc-n3-PUFA are key regulators in chronic disease control and prevention. Thus, many clinicians proposed the diet change especially for the western population which included large sources of Lc-n3-PUFA such as seafood and marine products.
The team perceived.“ The ruminant fats consist of low PUFA content and high unsaturated fats, whose decomposition by rumen microbes results in adverse effects”.
However, current evidence supports the use of ruminant fat as nutrition. The team reported, “ employingnew nutritional strategies enables effective modulation of fermentation and produces Lc-n3-PUFA concentrated ruminant food products such as from forage, oil seeds, fish oil and algae”.
Traditionally, many chemicals such as methane inhibitors, ionophores, defaunating agents and antibiotics were used to extract ruminant nutrition. However, the toxicity of these chemicals and increasing consumer demands diverted the attention of the public for a natural alternative such as essential oils (EO), saponins and tannins with antimicrobial properties.
Eburu stated, “essential oils are composed of two functional groups; terpenes and phenyl propanoids whose inhibitory expression varies according to the PUFA concentration.” Thus, the study successfully established that anise oil produced great potential at a minimum dose of 150 mg LG1 to maintain a high concentration of PUFA and modulate fermentation effectively.
The study uncovered critical areas for potential alternative plant additives in modulating rumen fermentation and presented the effectiveness of the use of essential oils in ruminant nutrition.