Currently, chicken meat is the second most preferred protein and it is consumed by almost every meat eater because of its low cost, ease of culinary preparation and hight nutritional value1. The active association between the concentration of fats such as cholesterol in the blood and the risk of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, stroke and other metabolic diseases encourages the broiler industry to produce low-fat meat2.
Leaves and extracts of star gooseberry (Sauropus androgynus) plays a significant role in decreasing the fat deposition in broiler and layer chickens3. The tendency of weight loss in broiler chickens by gooseberry leaveswill reduce the economic profit of the livestock industry. Gooseberry leaves have some anti-nutrients that can cause lung disorders4.
Therefore, there is a dire need of method which improves the nutrient contents and reduces the anti-nutrient substances of the leaves. It has been reported that the supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermented gooseberry leaves to the diet was effective in reducing the content of fat or cholesterol and increasing the content of protein, iron, vitamin A and β-carotene of broiler meat5.
The effectiveness of this product may be enhanced if the product is extracted because the extraction will better release the active compound. Therefore, a new study was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation of fermented gooseberry leaf extract on amino acid and fatty acid compositions, cholesterol, protein, fat, iron and β-carotene of broiler meat.
The aim of this study was to discovered the possible uses of fermented gooseberry leaf extract which can be beneficial for enriching nutrients such as protein, iron and β-carotene with lower fat and cholesterol in broiler meat. It will help to uncover the critical area of high fat deposition but low protein, iron and β-carotene deposition in broiler meat.
Fermented gooseberry leaf extract contained protein, fat, β-carotene, iron and sterol/100 mg. The extract was rich in palmitic acid, glutamic acid and valine. The fermented leaf extract of gooseberry inclusion at a level of 4.5-18 g kg–1 in the diet increased the contents of iron, protein and β-carotene but it reduced the content of cholesterol of broiler meat. In addition, fermented gooseberry leaf extract inclusion improved the compositions of amino acids and fatty acids.
The contribution of valine from gooseberry may partly explain higher valine contents in P1 and P3. Lower histidine content in meat may reduce the formation of carnosine, which may increase the lipid oxidation of meat. However, since alanine also has an important role in the synthesis of carnosine, the increase in lipid oxidation may be prevented.
Keywords: Fermented Sauropus androgynus leaf extract, protein, beta carotene, amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol, lipid oxidation, star gooseberry.
- J. Zelenka, A. Jarošová, and D. Schneiderová, “Influence of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on sensory characteristics of chicken meat,” Czech Journal of Animal Science, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 299–305, 2008.
- Willett, W.C., 2012. Dietary fats and coronary heart disease. J. Internal Med., 272: 13-24.
- Santoso, U., J. Setianto and T. Suteky, 2005. Effect of Sauropus androgynus (Katuk) extract on egg production and lipid metabolism in layers. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 18: 364-369.
- Hashimoto, I., K. Imaizumi, N. Hashimoto, H. Furukawa and Y. Noda et al., 2013. Aqueous fraction of Sauropus androgynus might be responsible for bronchiolitis obliterans. Respirology, 18: 340-347.
- Santoso, U., Y. Fenita and Kususiyah, 2015. Effect of fermented Sauropus androgynus leaves on blood lipid fraction and haematological profile in broiler chickens. J. lndonesian Trop. Anim. Agric., 40: 199-207.