Renal calculi, commonly known as kidney stones, are primarily composed of calcium oxalate. Their formation is influenced by factors such as dehydration, diet, and obesity. These stones can cause intense pain and are a global health concern. The study by Atul Sohgaura and Papiya Bigoniya from Radharaman College of Pharmacy sheds light on the worldwide prevalence, recurrence, and factors behind kidney stone formation. By reviewing literature from various regions, the authors emphasized the role of diet and hydration in stone occurrence. Furthermore, they discussed the kinds of foods that may aggravate or prevent the condition. The study also delves into the deeper mechanisms of how these stones form, the impact on kidney function, and the associated risks like heart disease and diabetes. Understanding these mechanisms is crucial for creating effective treatments.