An apple is an eatable fruit produced by an apple tree known as Malus domestica. People consume apples as a normal part of the diet or drink apple juice. Apples are also used by humans as medicine for many natural remedies. Apple trees are cultivated worldwide and are the most commonly grown species in the genus Malus. Apple exhibits many therapeutic properties like high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities for the use of value-added food processing, therefore, an increasing amount of research in vitro and in vivo is being done nowadays on apple genotypes. Approximately, 7,500 known cultivars of apples provide a wide range of preferred characteristics. Several cultivars are bred to obtain numerous tastes and use, including cooking, eating raw and apple cider production. Apple fruit has excellent antioxidant potential to treat the free radicals scavenging. Antioxidants formed by apples in response to the environmental stresses and infections caused by micro-organisms or mechanical damage.
Moreover, Chu et al. (2000) reported the flavonoids contents and antioxidant activities of apple fruits. Peiretti et al. (2019) stated that the DPPH (,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene), FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potential), and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) are the common radical scavenging capacity assay used for measuring the antioxidant activities. Tan et al. (2018) confirmed that antioxidant and anti-inflammatory dietary intakes are essential for lowering inflammations and oxidative stresses. Oxidative stress of apples is associated with inflammation against the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, asthma, and diabetes. Raw apples and their extracts have been established to decrease lipid oxidation, cholesterol and inhibit cancer cells.
Elhakem et al. (2021) presented research in the Asian Journal of Plant Sciences to evaluate antioxidant activities (FRAP, ABTS, DPPH), bioactive compounds (phenol, flavonoids) and anti-inflammatory activities of different varieties of apple fruit. The results indicated that apples, particularly Apricot variety had the highest bioactive compounds, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant and activities. Apricot variety of apple is known because it will taste like an apricot. SO, they concluded that apples might act as sources of important anti-inflammatory and antioxidant to decrease the inflammations and oxidative stresses.