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Jack Bean as Supplementary Protein Source for Ruminants

Jack bean is an Indonesian legume plant but is not used yet as protein supplement in cattle feed. The jack bean has several excellent nutritional properties including; a high protein content. However, more information about the protein degradability of jack beans in the rumen is needed and processing techniques that may increase the protein utility of jack beans as a protein supplement, especially for ruminants, are highly desirable1.

Numerous simple and easily applied heat processing techniques are available including; roasting, oven and extrusion. Nevertheless, the most optimum heating process technique for improving the nutrient quality of jack beans and its use in ruminants needs to be determined through investigating rumen fermentation characteristics2.

Heat treatment of protein rich feed stuffs can increase the protein utilization efficiency for ruminants, because heating can result in peptide chain and carbohydrate bonding, which decreases the protein degradation in the rumen and increases the availability of crude proteins and amino acids passing to the intestine. Though, overheating can result in in-digested protein fractions in the intestine, which decreases the protein value3.

In this context a new study was carried out which aimed to determine the optimum heating process technique, using in vitro rumen characteristics, in order to find the best method for the efficient utilization of jack bean proteins by ruminants. Effects of no treatment (H0), compared to a roasting treatment (H1), an oven treatment (H2) and an extrusion treatment (H3) were investigated4.

Not heating jack beans at all (H0) resulted in the lowest dry matter content, whereas heating process H1 resulted in the highest dry matter content. Of the three heating process techniques, process technique H3 resulted in jack beans that had the best texture and a dry matter content that was similar to the control (H0) treatment, as well as a fragrant scent.

Heating technique processes significantly increased the crude protein concentration in jack beans. The crude protein analysis procedure by proximate analysis included the nitrogen in the lignin artifacts. Lignin was formed through destruction processes in proximate analysis and covered in crude protein calculation, so that the crude protein concentration does not decrease, but increases significantly in the heating technique treatment groups.

The roasting and oven heating process techniques tested decreased the In vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility of jack beans, whereas the extrusion heating process did not significantly change IVDMD and IVOMD of jack beans. The VFA and NH3 concentrations decreased due to heating processes. The RUP increased due to heating processes and the highest RUP was found in jack beans treated with the extrusion process. The heating process technique by extrusion was found to be the best technique to increase the protein bypass supplement and improve rumen fermentation characteristics, without decreasing the utility of jack beans as a protein supplement for ruminants.


Protein supplement, heat processing technique, jack bean, nutritional values, rumen fermentation characteristics, protein bypass, roasting, oven heating, Heating technique.


  1. Hudiyanti, D., A.P. Arya, P. Siahaan and L. Suyati, 2015. Chemical composition and phospholipids content of Indonesian Jack Bean (Canavalia ensiformis L.). Orient. J. Chem., 31: 2043-2046.
  2. Pena, F., H. Tagari and L.D. Satter, 1986. The effect of heat treatment of whole cottonseed on site and extent of protein digestion in dairy cows. J. Anim. Sci., 62: 1423-1433.
  3. Chantiratikul, A. and S. Chumpawadee, 2011. Effect of heat-treatment on ruminal protein degradability of wolffia meal (Wolffia globosa L. Wimm). Asian J. Anim. Sci., 5: 183-189.
  4. B.W.H.E. Prasetiyono, B.I.M. Tampoebolon, A. Subrata and Widiyanto , 2018. Effects of Heat Processing Techniques on Nutritional Value and in vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics of Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L.). Pak. J. Nutri., 17: 294-299.


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